AquaFuel, An Example Of The Emerging New Energies And The New Methods For Their Scientific Study
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In this paper we initiate systematic studies on the novel methods
needed for quantitative scientific studies of the emerging new forms
of energy, by using as a representative example the new combustible
gas called AquaFuel, discovered and patented by William H. Richard-
son, jr., whose rights are now owned by Toups Technology Licensing,
Inc. (TTL), of Largo, Florida. In essence, AquaFuel is a new energy
converter capable of transforming Carbon and water into a new com-
bustible gas via the use of a suitable electric discharge. We show that
AquaFuel can be produced easily, safely and rapidly in large amounts,
has novel physical and chemical characteristics, and exhibits greatly
reduced emission pollutants as compared to fuels currently used. We
then review nine basic experimental measures currently under study
by TTL which are necessary for a scientific appraisal of AquaFuel. We
outline the limitations of quantum mechanics and chemistry for the
treatment of new forms of energies, namely, energies which by defini-
tion should be beyond said theories. We point out the availability of
broader theories specifically constructed for the study of new energies
and point out available applications. Detailed studies on the origin
of the AquaFuel energy and its energy balance will be presented at a
later time upon completion of the systematic experimental and theo-
retical studies currently under way. These results are expected to be
significant for various other forms of new energies.
The Basic Process Underlying AquaFuel
AquaFuel is a new combustible gas discovered and developed by William
H. Richardson, jr, which is covered by the patents listed in Refs. . Its
rights are now owned by Toups Technology Licensing, Inc. (TTL), a U. S.
corporation in Largo, Florida, which is continuing its development. Starting
from the three basic elements of nature, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon,
AquaFuel is produced during an electric discharge across an arc between
carbon electrodes immersed in distilled, fresh or salt water.
The patented process is basically different from electrolysis. In fact,
in electrolysis, water must be complemented with electrolyte to carry the
charges from the negative to the positive poles of the power source. In
AquaFuel charges are instead stimulated by a sufficient voltage difference.
In the latter case, no addition of electrolyte chemicals is needed to create a
conducting path. As we shall see, this property of AquaFuel is important to
minimize pollutants in the various applications.
According to currently available scientific knowledge, the main process
underlying AquaFuel is constituted by Carbon atoms breaking loose under
discharge from the carbon electrodes and forming particular bonds with the
water constituents, Oxygen and Hydrogen. The resulting new molecules cool
as they bubble up to the water’s surface where they are collected and stored
for various usages. The resulting combustible gas is called AquaFuel.
Description of Equipment
As in Figure 1, a one-gallon fishbowl is three-quarters filled with distilled,
tap or salt water. Copper tubing conducts 24 volts continuous current (DC)
to the tips of two 0.25 diameter Carbon rods composed of 99% pure graphite,
which are immersed in said water, one of whose tips is extended into a large
diameter Carbon block.
The electric arc tunnels thru the water from the tip of the Carbon rod
to the large Carbon block. The AquaFuel gas cools while bubbling to the
water’s surface where it is collected with an inverted funnel.
The electric arc produces a local temperature of the order of 5,000 ◦ F .
The process dissociates the water molecules by forming a local high temper-
ature plasma composed of generally ionized atoms of Carbon,
Some of the most impressive aspects of AquaFuel are the simplicity, safety
and rapidity of its production. As an indication, preliminary measures under
verification indicate that the use of 36 V in the arc permits the produc-
tion in one minute of 30 liters of AquaFuel at ordinary pressure. The same
production increases exponentially with voltage, thus permitting the rapid
production of AquaFuel anywhere needed.
Ongoing Experimental Measures
The most important experimental measures on AquaFuel of current primary
interest to TTL are listed below. Suggestions and/or participations by inter-
ested colleagues would be appreciated.
1) Measure the energy content of AquaFuel per unit volume in BTU or
other units. It should be indicated that a number of measures of BTU via
conventional means have failed to provide any scientific answer for various
reasons. As an example, readings of BTU compared to methane were in-
conclusive because the former burns with about half of the air (Oxygen)
requirement of the latter, thus voiding the scientific value of any measure
without due thermodynamical consideration of the different air intakes. Sim-
ilar unsettled results occurred with other measures. Innovative means for the
needed measures are therefore under study.
2) Measure the individual isotopes in AquaFuel originating from distilled
water. These measures are requested for AquaFuel produced from distilled
water and 99% pure graphite so that the initial ingredients are known. The
measures should then identify both the atomic number A (total numbers
of protons and neutrons) as well as the nuclear charge Z (total number of
protons) for each constituent of AquaFuel.