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Cryogenic FULL REPORT
Post: #1

PRESENTED BY
ANINDITA ROUT


.pptx  (anindita)1.pptx (Size: 437.48 KB / Downloads: 273)
Method to produce Low temperature
Magnetism produces low temperature. When a material is magnetized it becomes warm and cold when demagnetized in controlled atmosphere thus producing low temperature
By compressing the gas it producing heat and later allowed to expand producing ultralow temperature.
Advantages of Cryogenics Processing
The following properties are attained to the materials treated
Increases wear resistance
Increases corrosion resistance
High strength
Good quality
Cost reduction in the material manufactured
Lower stress corrosion
. Cryogenic heat treatment helps to reduce the stored stress in the metal by creating a uniform bond between the crystals.
. This process is eco friendly in nature.
. There is no waste deposition.
. The nitrogen which used in the process is liquefied from the atmosphere and later released back into it thereby creating no imbalance to the ecosystem.
Cryogenic Rocket Engines
Cryogenic rocket engines are one of the important applications in the field of cryogenics.
The higher thrust levels required for a rocket engines are achieved when liquid oxygen and liquid hydrocarbon are used in fuel. But at atmospheric condition ,and low molecular hydrocarbons are in gaseous state. Therefore these are stored in liquid form by cooling them down using cryogenics. Hence the name cryogenic Rocket Engine.
cryogenic rocket Engine
Cryogenic Heat Treatment
This is a process of treating metals, plastics, ceramics temperatures below 120k to their crystal structure and properties.
This increases their wear resistance, and the life of metals and plastics.
They are used in the field of superconductors,cryo microbiology and space programs.
In alloy Steels
In this process the alloy steels are treated to convert the entire austenite into a marten site matrix such it changes the molecular structure of the steel and forms an entirely new, more refined grain structure .

The number of countable carbides increases from 30,000 to 80,000 per square millimeter which forms a “super hard” surface of metal.
cryogenic Fuel
Another use of cryogenics is cryogenic fuel . Cryogenic fuels, mainly liquid hydrogen , have been used as rocket fuels.
Cryogenics has made possible the commercial transportation of liquefied natural gas.
Without cryogenics , nuclear research would lack , liquid nitrogen and helium for in particle detector and the power electromagnets needed in large particle accelerators.
Such magnets are also being used in nuclear fusion research.
Cryogenic cooling is often used in space telescope that observe object in infrared and microwave wavelengths.
More efficient and compact cry coolers allow cryogenic temperatures to be used in an increasing variety of military , medical, scientific, civilian and commercial application , including infrared sensors, superconducting electronics, and magnetic levitation trains.
Cryogenics in Biology
Cryogenics is used in artificial insemination to store semen's and embryos.
One such use in bio field is cryosurgery,
cryosurgery sometimes is referred to cryotherapy . It is a surgical technique in which freezing is used to destroy undesirable tissues.
Cryogenics in food
Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. Freezing food is a common method of food preservation which slows both food decay and, by turning water to ice, makes it unavailable for bacterial growth and slows down most chemical reactions…..
Frozen food preserves food from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten . In the food commodity industry, the process is called IQF or Individually Quick Frozen.
Future of Cryogenics
Cryogenics Rocket engine which will be used by NASA for its moon mission.
Cryogen Handling Hazards
Cold Burns
Direct contact with cryogenic liquids and gases as
well as surfaces at cryogenic temperatures can lead to
massive damages of the skin ( cold burns)
or even of tissues.
The danger of cold burns is most prominent when
handling open cryogen containers .
Eyes and sensitive membranes are most at risk.
Cold Burns Means of protection and preventive measures
- Safety garments which prevent the penetration of cryogenic liquids:
- eye protection
- gloves of insulating and non combustible material
which can be easily be removed
-high, tight fitting shoes
- trousers without turn-ups which
overlap the shoes
Conclusion
From this presentation it can be concluded that cryogenics can be applied to almost everywhere in every field .
It finds its application in tooling industries, agricultural industries, medical, recycling, household, automobile industries.
This field could be put to many other applications in various fields. Hence cryogenics proves to be promising for the future.
Post: #2
Cryogenic FULL REPORT



.docx  nitesh.docx (Size: 219.34 KB / Downloads: 129)

Introduction:

Researchers at the Universities of Washington and Texas developed a new zero-emission automobile propulsion concept that uses liquid nitrogen as the fuel. The principle of operation is like that of a steam engine, except there is no combustion involved.
Here an automotive propulsion concept is presented which utilizes liquid nitrogen as the working fluid for an open Rankine cycle. When the only heat input to the engine is supplied by ambient heat exchangers, an automobile can readily be propelled while satisfying stringent tailpipe emission standards. Nitrogen propulsive systems can provide automotive ranges of nearly 400 kilometers in the zero emission mode, with lower operating costs than those of the electric vehicles currently being considered for mass production. In geographical regions that allow ultra low emission vehicles, the range and performance of the liquid nitrogen automobile can be significantly extended by the addition of a small efficient burner. Some of the advantages of a transportation infrastructure based on liquid nitrogen are that recharging the energy storage system only requires minutes and there are minimal environmental hazards associated with the manufacture and utilization of the cryogenic "fuel". The basic idea of nitrogen propulsion system is to utilize the atmosphere as the heat source. This is in contrast to the typical heat engine where the atmosphere is used as the heat sink.

History:
The LN2000 is an operating proof-of-concept test vehicle, a converted 1984 Grumman-Olson Kuban mail delivery van. Applying LN2 as a portable thermal storage medium to propel both commuter and fleet vehicles appears to be an attractive means to meeting the ZEV regulations soon to be implemented. Pressurizing the working fluid while it is at cryogenic temperatures, heating it up with ambient air, and expanding it in reciprocating engines is a straightforward approach for powering pollution free vehicles. Ambient heat exchangers that will not suffer extreme icing will have to be developed to enable wide utility of this propulsion system.



“Cryogen” the fuel:
Any liquid that is used to produce very low temperature,Cryogens are effective thermal storage media which, when used for automotive purposes, offer significant advantages over current and proposed electrochemical battery technologies, both in performance and economy. An automotive propulsion concept is presented which utilizes liquid nitrogen as the working fluid for an open Rankine cycle. The principle of operation is like that of a steam engine, except there is no combustion involved. Liquid nitrogen is pressurized and then vaporized in a heat exchanger by the ambient temperature of the surrounding air. The resulting high – pressure nitrogen gas is fed to the engine converting pressure into mechanical power. The only exhaust is nitrogen.
The usage of cryogenic fuels has significant advantage over other fuel. Also, factors such as production and storage of nitrogen and pollutants in the exhaust give advantage for the cryogenic fuels.

Principle:
Here an automotive propulsion concept is presented which utilizes liquid nitrogen as the working fluid for an open Rankine cycle. When the only heat input to the engine is supplied by ambient heat exchangers, an automobile can readily be propelled while satisfying stringent tailpipe emission standards. Nitrogen propulsive systems can provide automotive ranges of nearly 400 kilometers in the zero emission mode, with lower operating costs than those of the electric vehicles currently being considered for mass production. In geographical regions that allow ultra low emission vehicles, the range and performance of the liquid nitrogen automobile can be significantly extended by the addition of a small efficient burner. Some of the advantages of a transportation infrastructure based on liquid nitrogen are that recharging the energy storage system only requires minutes and there are minimal environmental hazards associated with the manufacture and utilization of the cryogenic "fuel". The basic idea of nitrogen propulsion system is to utilize the atmosphere as the heat source. This is in contrast to the typical heat engine where the atmosphere is used as the heat sink.
Post: #3
to get information about the topic "CRYOGENIC ENGINE"full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

http://projects-seminars.net/Thread-cryogenic-engine

http://projects-seminars.net/Thread-cryo...ull-report

http://projects-seminars.net/Thread-cryogenic-engines

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Post: #4
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Post: #5
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Post: #6
To get full information or details of Cryogenic FULL REPORT please have a look on the pages

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Post: #7
Plz send me full seminar report on cryogenic hardening on gbingole2014[at]gmail.com
Post: #8

In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

It is not well-defined at what point on the temperature scale refrigeration ends and cryogenics begins, but scientists assume it starts at or below −150 °C (123 K; −238 °F). The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology has chosen to consider the field of cryogenics as that involving temperatures below −180 °C or −292.00 °F or 93.15 K. This is a logical dividing line, since the normal boiling points of the so-called permanent gases (such as helium, hydrogen, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and normal air) lie below −180 °C while the Freon refrigerants, hydrogen sulfide, and other common refrigerants have boiling points above −180 °C. (above −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K).

A person who studies elements that have been subjected to extremely cold temperatures is called a cryogenicist.
 


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Marked Categories : cyrogenics, report on crogenics, application of cryo treatment report, conclusion on cryogenic, cryogen, download cryogenics project report, cryogenics applications in military low temperature ppt, cryogenic rocket engines full report, cryogenic food preservation, cyogenic, cryogenics application full report, seminar reprt on cryogenic fluids, cryogenic full report, crystal physics, how cryogenic ice slows down decaying, cryogenic advantages, cryogenic heat treatment, what is conclusion of cryogenics, cryogenic, cryogenics, cryogenic heat treatment full report, cryogenic heat treatment seminar, cryogenic treatment project complete report, conclusion of cryogenics,

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