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Energy is a Life Sustainable Business
• Present socio-economic realities – limits developments
• Better Understanding of Performance Issues is Needed
• Energy storage technologies do not represent energy sources
• Provide valuable added benefits to improve:
• stability, power quality and security of supply.
• Battery Technologies
• Flywheel Technologies
• Advanced / Super Capacitors
• Superconducting Energy Storage Systems
• Electric Power Systems - Experiencing Dramatic Changes
• Electric load growth and higher regional power transfers in a largely interconnected network: >>complex and less secure power system operation.
• Power generation and transmission facilities - unable to meet these new demands
• Growth of electronic loads has made the quality of power supply a critical issue.
• Power system engineers facing these challenges - operate the system in more a flexible.
• In face of disturbances - generators unable to keep the system stable.
• High speed reactive power control is possible through the use of flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) devices.
• Better solution: rapidly vary real power without impacting the system through power circulation.
• Recent developments and advances in energy storage and power electronics technologies
Energy Storage Systems for Advanced Transmission and Distribution Applications
• Energy Storage Technology – Power Convert
The amount of energy that can be stored in the device.
The rate at which energy can be transferred into or out of the storage device.
• Power/Energy ranges for near to mid-term technology have projected
• Integration of energy storage technologies with Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) and custom power devices are among the possible advanced power applications utilizing energy storage.
Power vs. Energy Ranges for Near to Midterm Technology
Benefits: transmission enhancement, power oscillation damping, dynamic voltage stability, tie line control, short-term spinning reserve, load leveling, under-frequency load shedding reduction, circuit break reclosing, sub-synchronous resonance damping, and power quality improvement.
B. Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS)
Batteries are one of the most cost-effective energy storage technologies available, with energy stored electrochemically.
Key factors in battery for storage applications include: high energy density, high energy capability, round trip efficiency, cycling capability, life span, and initial cost.
Battery technologies under consideration for large-scale energy storage.
Lead-acid batteries can be designed for bulk energy storage or for rapid charge/discharge.
Mobile applications are favoring sealed lead-acid battery technologies for safety and ease of maintenance.
Valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have better cost and performance characteristics for stationary applications.