Indian Accounting Standards
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Accounting is the art of recording transactions in the best manner possible, so as to enable the reader to arrive at judgments/come to conclusions, and in this regard it is utmost necessary that there are set guidelines. These guidelines are generally called accounting policies. The intricacies of accounting policies permitted Companies to alter their accounting principles for their benefit. This made it impossible to make comparisons. In order to avoid the above and to have a harmonized accounting principle, Standards needed to be set by recognized accounting bodies. This paved the way for Accounting Standards to come into existence.
Accounting Standards in India are issued By the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). At present there are 30 Accounting Standards issued by ICAI.
Compliance with Accounting Standards issued by ICAI
Sub Section (3A) to section 211 of Companies Act, 1956 requires that every Profit/Loss Account and Balance Sheet shall comply with the Accounting Standards. 'Accounting Standards' means the standard of accounting recommended by the ICAI and prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards(NACAs) constituted under section 210(1) of companies Act, 1956.
Consolidated Financial Statements :
The objective of this statement is to present financial statements of a parent and its subsidiary (i.e.) as a single economic entity. In other words the holding company and its subsidiary (i.e.) are treated as one entity for the preparation of these consolidated financial statements. Consolidated profit/loss account and consolidated balance sheet are prepared for disclosing the total profit/loss of the group and total assets and liabilities of the group. As per this accounting standard, the consolidated balance sheet if prepared should be prepared in the manner prescribed by this statement.
Accounting for Taxes on Income :
This accounting standard prescribes the accounting treatment for taxes on income. Traditionally, amount of tax payable is determined on the profit/loss computed as per income tax laws. According to this accounting standard, tax on income is determined on the principle of accrual concept. According to this concept, tax should be accounted in the period in which corresponding revenue and expenses are accounted. In simple words tax shall be accounted on accrual basis; not on liability to pay basis.
Financial Instrument :
Recognition and Measurement, issued by The Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, comes into effect in respect of Accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2009 and will be recommendatory in nature for An initial period of two years. This Accounting Standard will become mandatory in respect of Accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2011 for all commercial, industrial and business Entities except to a Small and Medium-sized Entity. The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for recognizing and measuring Financial assets, financial liabilities and some contracts to buy or sell non-financial items. Requirements for presenting information about financial instruments are in Accounting Standard.
Financial Instrument presentation :
The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for presenting financial instruments as liabilities or equity and for offsetting financial assets and financial liabilities. It applies to the classification of financial instruments, from the perspective of the issuer, into financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments; the classification of related interest, dividends, losses and gains; and the circumstances in which financial assets and financial liabilities should be offset. The principles in this Standard complement the principles for recognizing and measuring financial assets and financial liabilities in Accounting Standard Financial Instruments: