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A QR (quick response) code is a two-dimensional barcode readable by QR scanners, smart
mobile phones with a camera. QR codes can be used to link to any URL. They can also be
used to automatically add information into a user's smartphone such as a calendar event, map
or personal contact information. A QR code is capable of storing several hundred times more
information than a conventional barcode and is readable from any direction. A QR Code
system is used in combination with a QR Code printer(or QR Code creation software) and
QR Code scanner. QR Code is generated with QR Code creation software and a special
printer. A QR Code is a matrix code (or two-dimensional bar code) created by Japanese
corporation Denso-Wave in 1994. The "QR" is derived from "Quick Response", as the
creator intended the code to allow its contents to be decoded at high speed.
QR Code provides the following features compared with conventional bar codes:
1. High Capacity Encoding of Data
2. Small Printout Size
3. Dirt and Damage Resistant
4. Readable from any direction in 360°
5. Structured Append Feature
QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix
barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. A
barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which
it is attached. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric,
byte/binary, and kanji) to efficiently store data; extensions may also be used. The QR Code
system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater
storage capacity compared to standard barcodes. Applications include product tracking, item
identification, time tracking, document management, and general marketing. QR code for the
URL of the English Wikipedia Mobile main page .A QR code consists of black modules (square
dots) arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging
device (such as a camera, scanner, etc.) and processed using Reed–Solomon error correction
until the image can be appropriately interpreted. The required data are then extracted from
patterns that are present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image. Now the
QR code is developed as much more standard because of their storage capacity and easily
flexible. There are various types of QR codes that are used by the various organizations for
storing the data which ensures the privacy and security of data that is being decoded. SQRC
code is also the variety of QR code that ensures the security of data from being decrypted by
the unauthorized personnel. Here Micro QR code is used for storing the large amount of data
as compared to the traditional QR code because they are get created in the rectangle form also
like the bar codes and get scanned by the QR Scanner.
Development History of QR CodeThe
QR code system was invented in 1994 by Denso Wave. Its purpose was to track
vehicles during manufacture; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning.
Although initially used for tracking parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes now are used in
a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenienceoriented
applications aimed at mobile-phone users (termed mobile tagging). QR codes may
be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), or to compose an e-mail or text message. Users can
generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several
paid and free QR code generating sites or apps.
Micro QR code is a smaller version of the QR code standard for applications where symbol
size is limited. There are 4 different versions (sizes) of Micro QR codes: the smallest is
11×11 modules; the largest can hold 35 numeric characters. IQR code is an alternative to
existing QR codes developed by Denso Wave. IQR codes can be created in square or
rectangular formations; this is intended for situations where a rectangular barcode would
otherwise be more appropriate, such as cylindrical objects. IQR codes can fit the same
amount of information in 30% less space. There are 61 versions of square IQR codes, and 15
versions of rectangular codes. For squares, the minimum size is 9x9 modules; rectangles have
a minimum of 19x5 modules. IQR codes add error correction level S with 50% error
Characteristics of QR Code-
1. High Capacity encoding of data :
A barcode is one-dimensional, which means that scanners use only horizontal
direction to scan the barcode. No matter what the height of barcode is. Since
barcode is one-dimensional, the storage of information capacity is limited and
the barcode can store less than 20 characters. A QR Code possesses a high
capacity of storing information. While a traditional barcode is able to store
highest of approximately 20 digits, a QR Code enables to store several of
information that is hundred times than the capacity of traditional barcode
stores information. The QR Code is capable of storing various types of data,
e.g. numeric and alphabetic characters, symbols, binary, and control codes.
Additionally, QR Code can store maximum 7,089 characters in one symbol.
Figure 1 demonstrates that the QR Code can be stored encoding numeric and
Small printout size :
Compared with the one dimensional barcode, a QR Code can be hold
information both horizontal and vertical direction. When the number of data is
same, the space of QR Code information storage only accounts for 25% space
of the one dimensional barcode information storage.
Readable from any direction in 3600
QR Code has a characteristic that it can be read in 360 degree direction.
Nonetheless, the traditional one dimensional barcode recognizes the information
only plus-minus ten degrees which is relatively smaller than QR Code. QR Code
not only can be read in 360 degree direction, but QR Code also can be read in high
speed. The secret of QR Code reading direction in 360 degrees is that position the
detection patterns located at the three corners of the symbol can locate the QR
Code. Therefore, QR Code can read quickly and circumvent the effects of
4. Structured Appending Feature :
QR Code is capable of classifying a variety of data areas. On the contrary, a lot of
Information is stored in various QR Code symbols can compose a QR Code
symbol. One data symbol allows dividing into maximum 16 symbols that is
providing convenience to print.
Structure of QR Code
The structure of QR Code, which is divided into two segments. In terms of function patterns
which are composed by finder patterns, separators, timing patterns and alignment patterns.
The Finder patterns are three common structures that are located in QR Code’s three corners.
Finder pattern is used for positioning the symbol, recognizing the symbol and deciding the
correct orientation. Separators surround the finder pattern that can promote identification of
the finder pattern. Timing patterns enable the decoder software to judge the side of module.
Alignments patterns sustain decoder software in correcting for reducing the image distortion.
Version one QR Code does not have alignment pattern. With the size of the version
increasing, alignment pattern is added at the same time. For encoding region, format
information appears in all sizes of version that used to store formatted data and select
masking pattern. Data is transferred into a bit stream and stored in 8 bit parts in data section.
And error correction codes are stored in error correction section.
QR Code Model One and Model Two:
Model one is the primary QR Code and it enables encode 1,167 numerals and
its highest version being 14. Model two is the edition of Model one promotion,
thus Model two can be read smoothly even though it is distorted in some way.
Model two can store more than 7,089 numerals with its maximum version
2. Micro QR Code:
A traditional QR Code has three finder patterns which are placed on the three
corners of the QR Code image. Compared with the traditional QR Code,
Micro QR Code has merely one finder pattern for positioning. On the other
hand, a normal QR Code needs no less than four-module wide margin within a
symbol. Nevertheless, Micro QR Code only requires a two-module wide
margin. Under this circumstance, Micro QR Code permits printing in areas
smaller than QR Code. Below picture illustrates difference QR Code and
Micro QR Code.
The symbol of Micro QR Code and QR Code
The Micro QR Code has a finder patterns, whereas QR Code has three finder
patterns. Moreover, the Micro QR Code’s wide margin is smaller than QR
Code. Furthermore, for the capacity of data storage and the size of code, the
data can be stored by Micro QR Code in less than 35 numerals data. Micro QR
Code not only enables to encode data more efficiently than the regular QR
Code, but the size of Micro QR Code also does not need to be made much
larger when the numbers of data stored rising. In addition, the standardization
of Micro QR Code is made publicly available similarly to QR Code.
3. IQR Codes:
IQR Code is a matrix-type two dimensional barcode and its position and size
is read easily. Using IQR Code can be generated more extensive two
dimensional barcode. The new two dimensional barcode can be smaller than
the normal QR Code and Micro QR Code. Moreover, the new two
dimensional barcode also can be a large size two dimensional barcode.
Furthermore, IQR Code is able to printout as a rectangular code, and IQR
Code supports for turned-over code, black-and-white inversion code and dot
pattern code. IQR Code permits a wide range of applications in several fields.
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Because IQR Code can be generated as rectangular modules, IQR Code
enables replace the one dimensional barcode. IQR Code can maintain the
code’s readability while it printed on cylindrical products, even though square
modules are difficult to print on cylindrical. Figure shows that the sample of
code with rectangular modules
IQR Code can store more information than the ordinary QR Code. If the size
of symbol is same, compared with the ordinary QR Code, the IQR Code
capacity of storing information increases to 80% regular QR Code. If the same
amount is stored, an IQR Code can be made 30% smaller than the regular QR
SQRC is a particular QR Code and it is embedded into reading restricting
function. The SQRC concentrates on private data storing and internal data of
enterprise managing, nevertheless, this function does not ensure securing of
coded data. The aspects and properties of SQRC are similar to the traditional
QR Code. In addition, SQRC can be locking up of encode data, merely specific
scanners can read it. Besides, data for SQRC includes public segment and
private segment, different layer of information can be stored in one SQRC
LOGO Q Codes:
A new style of QR Code is Logo Q which combines a QR Code with a picture.
LogoQ is designed for the sake of boosting the recognizable ability of vision.
Figure 8 reveals the sample of LogoQ.
How to Generate QR Code-
1. Data Analysis :
A QR code encodes a string of text. The QR code standard has
four modes for encoding text: numeric, alphanumeric, byte, and Kanji. Each mode
encodes the text as a string of bits (1s and 0s), but each mode uses a different
method for converting the text into bits. Each method is optimized to generate the
shortest possible string of bits for that data type.
(a) QR Code Modes :
The four encoding modes include the following characters:
Numeric mode is for decimal digits 0 through 9.
Alphanumeric mode is for the decimal digits 0 through 9, as
well as uppercase letters (not lowercase!), and the symbols $,
%, *, +, -, ., /, and : as well as a space. All of the supported
characters for alphanumeric mode are listed in the left column
of this alphanumeric table.
Byte mode, by default, is for characters from the ISO-8859-1
character set. However, some QR code scanners can
automatically detect if UTF-8 is used in byte mode instead.
Kanji mode is for double-byte characters from the Shift JIS
character set. While UTF-8 can encode Kanji characters, it
must use three or four bytes to do so. Shift JIS, on the other
hand, uses just two bytes to encode each Kanji character, so
Kanji mode compresses Kanji characters more efficiently. If
the entire input string consists of characters in the double-byte
range of Shift JIS, use Kanji mode. It is also possible to use
multiple modes within the same QR code.
How to Choose the most Efficient Mode :
To select the most efficient mode for the QR code, examine the
characters in the input string and check for the following
1. If the input string only consists of decimal digits (0 through 9),
use numeric mode.
2. If numeric mode is not applicable, use alphanumeric mode.
Lowercase letters CANNOT be encoded in alphanumeric
mode; only uppercase.
3. Byte mode- QR code readers may be able to recognize UTF-8
in byte mode.
4. If all of the characters are in the Shift JIS character set, use
Kanji mode. Shift JIS characters can be encoded in UTF-8
instead, so it is possible to use byte mode for Kanji, but it is
generally more efficient to use Shift JIS and use Kanji mode for
2. Data Encoding :
Step-1: Choose the error correction level.
Before encoding the data, select an error correction level. QR codes use ReedSolomon
error correction. This process creates error correction code words (bytes)
based on the encoded data. A QR code reader can use these error correction bytes
to determine if it did not read the data correctly, and the error correction code
words can be used to correct those errors. There are four levels of error correction:
L, M, Q, H. The following table lists the levels and their error correction
Level L (Low) - 7% of code words can be restored.
Level M (Medium) - 15% of code words can be restored.
Level Q (Quartile) - 25% of code words can be restored.
Level H (High) -30% of code words can be restored.
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Step-2: Determine the smallest version of data.
At this point, count the number of characters to be encoded, and determine which
is the smallest version that can contain that number of characters for the encoding
mode and desired error correction level.
For example, the phrase HELLO WORLD has 11 characters. If encoding it
with level Q error correction, the character capacities table says that a version
1 code using level Q error correction can only contain 10 characters in
alphanumeric mode. Therefore, the smallest version that can be used in this
case is version 2.
Step-3: Add the mode indicator
Each encoding mode has a four-bit mode indicator that identifies it. The encoded
data must start with the appropriate mode indicator that specifies the mode being
used for the bits that come after it. The following table lists the mode indicators
for each mode.
For example, if encoding HELLO WORLD in alphanumeric mode, the mode
indicator is 0010.
Step-4: Add the character count indicator
The character count indicator is a string of bits that represents the number of
characters that are being encoded. The character count indicator must be placed
after the mode indicator. Furthermore, the character count indicator must be a
certain number of bits long, depending on the QR version.